From UC Davis: https://www.vgl.ucdavis.edu/services/Hyperuricosuria.php
Hyperuricosuria means elevated levels of uric acid in the urine. This trait predisposes dogs to form stones in their bladders or sometimes kidneys. These stones often must be removed surgically and can be difficult to treat. Hyperuricosuria is inherited as a simple autosomal recessive trait. The trait can occur in any breed but is most commonly found in the Dalmatian, Bulldog and Black Russian Terrier. Dalmatians are considered to be homozygous for hyperuricosuria. A mutation in exon 5 of the gene Solute carrier family 2, member 9 (SLC2A9) has been found to be associated with hyperuricosuria in dogs. A DNA test for this specific mutation can determine if dogs are normal or if they carry one or two copies of the mutation. Dogs that carry two copies of the mutation will be affected and susceptible to develop bladder/kidney stones.
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Detailed Hyperuricosuria Information
The VGL offers a DNA test for hyperuricosuria to assist owners and breeders in identifying affected and carrier dogs. The test uses DNA collected from buccal swabs thus avoiding invasive blood collection. Breeders can use results from the test as a tool for selection of mating pairs to avoid producing affected dogs. The test is offered to all breeds, including Dalmatian, Bulldog, Black Russian Terrier, Weimaraner , Jack Russel/Parsons Terrier, Pitbull, American Staffordshire Terrier, Giant Schnauzer, South African Boerboel, German Shepherd, Large Munsterlander, Australian Shepherd and Vizsla.
The following chart details the expected outcomes of matings for all possible combinations of hyperuricosuria genotypes.
|N/N||100% N/N||50% N/N, 50% N/HU||100% N/HU|
|N/HU||50% N/N, 50% N/HU||25% N/N, 50% N/HU, 25% HU/HU||50% N/HU, 50% HU/HU|
|HU/HU||100% N/HU||50% N/HU, 50% HU/HU||100% HU/HU|
Results reported as:
N/N: no copies of hyperuricosuria mutation; dog is normal
N/HU: 1 copy of hyperurisosuria mutation; dog is normal but is a carrier
HU/HU: 2 copies of hyperuricosuria mutation; dog is affected and susceptible to develop bladder/kidney stones.
Research Hyperuricosuria is ongoing to determine other breeds with this problem. We recommend testing any dog that has formed kidney or bladder stones composed of urate or uric acid. If the dog has the mutation then treatment modalities for Dalmatians can be used to treat the dog.
Bannasch D, N Safra, A Young, N Karmi, RS Schaible and GV Ling (2008) Mutations in the SLC2A9 Gene Cause Hyperuricosuria and Hyperuricemia in the Dog. PLoS Genetics 4(11): e1000246. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000246
Karmi N, EA Brown, SS Hughes, B McLaughlin, CS Mellersh, V Biourge, and DL Bannasch (2010) Estimated Frequency of the Canine Hyperuricosuria Mutation in Different Dog Breeds. Journal of Veterinary and Internal Medicine 2010;24:1337–1342.
For further information, follow the link below to a case file on HUU: HUU Case File